September 24

GaN Based Power Amplifiers Required for 5G Communications

first_imgWith current technologies and innovations wireless data transmission via mobile communication is now reliable and affordable. However, data volume per user is rising exponentially. Causes are not only the continuously growing number of smartphones, but also trends as car-to-car (C2C) or machine-to-machine (M2M) communication – cars and machines need to communicate in high speed with each other. From 2020 the 5G mobile standard is aiming to transmit data rapidly and efficiently. For that purpose Fraunhofer is developing new power amplifiers based on GaN (gallium nitride).There are over 8 billion wireless devices currently in circulation today. Chatting with friends and the family, watching videos while on the road, playing online or simply surfing the Internet can be done without problems and is affordable. The current technologies are great for now, however, as the number of users increase and the data volume increases, the current technologies will not be able to sustain the required increase in data volume.So far, it is mainly humans who are communicating with each other using mobile communication devices. In the future, cars, devices, or production machines will join the networks. However, real-time radio communication is necessary for visions such as Industry 4.0 or autonomous driving. Maximum data rates of 10 gigabits per second are needed and thus targeted. However, today’s 4G LTE mobile standard is designed for 300 megabits per second and does not support real-time transmission. Surfing the Internet on your mobile device is comparatively slow with an average peak data rate of 50 megabits per second. For this reason, wireless carrier and network equipment providers are working jointly with researchers on the more powerful 5G. The new cellular network standard will enable the live transmission of high-quality video.Developing technology for higher radio frequenciesThe base stations are an important component in the cellular network. They are the bottleneck through which all data must pass. Researchers at Fraunhofer IAF are developing power amplifiers that are able to send more data faster and above all more efficiently through the cellular network. The first step required is for 5G networks to go higher in frequencies to 6 GHz, current LTE is limited to the 2.7 GHz band. Higher frequencies mean faster data transmission, but unfortunately also less available power for the transmitters. For this reason, the scientists are manufacturing transistors and microchips on GaN that are only a few square mm in size. Gallium Nitride is semiconductor material that is ideal for high power, high efficiency applications.For every transmitted bit, the wireless transmission of data consumes power. That alone makes up about 15 percent of a cellular invoice. Currently each bit of information transmitted requires a certain, constant amount of power. As the data requirements increase and the number of bits transmitted increase, the energy requirements will also increase proportionately. So if the data requirements increase 200 times, then the power requirements will also increase proportionately. To avoid/solve this problem, the efficiency of cellular communications needs to be improved drastically, specially for 5G.Currently, base stations are only able to transmit high data rates with a very high energy expenditure. The root cause is that they transmit the radio waves into the air – without knowing where the users are located. However, with new electronically steerable antennas and GaN-based power amplifiers, the information reaches the receivers with pinpoint accuracy and much more efficiency resulting in a much lower energy bill. Equipped with the technology of the researchers from Freiburg, the antennas of the base station electronically aim at the receiver. Its like the human ear: We know from which direction noises are coming from without turning our head.GaN seems to be one of the best technologies which can be used to develop power amplifiers for 5G. However at this point power savings during operations exceed the production costs, in comparison to silicon, of the still more expensive GaN. GaN is an important component of blue and white LEDs. The success of this light technology has contributed to the production of GaN becoming ever more cost-effective. Over the last year, we have seen a number of companies who have already started to push GaN solutions for commercial applications. As the demand for this technology increase, the price points are expected to come down significantly. Subject to the prince coming down, GaN seems to be the most viable technology for powering the 5G wireless infrastructure.last_img read more

September 20

Report: Bristol Rugby 42-17 London Scottish

first_imgThe home side – who remain unbeaten after four successive wins – scored six tries as Auguy Slowik, Marco Mama, Jack Lam and Dwayne Peel all dotted down, while Bristol added two penalty tries.Auguy Slowik handed Bristol a 7-0 lead inside the opening exchanges when the full back continued his rich vein of try-scoring form, cantering in unopposed after a three man overlap.And the home side doubled their advantage midway through the first period when referee John Meredith awarded a penalty try following a surge at the scrum.Miles Mantella halved the deficit when the Exiles winger showed sublime footwork to waltz over from thirty metres, while Peter Lydon converted.But Bristol added two tries in quick succession to gain a stranglehold on proceedings and seal a bonus point before half-time.First, Andy Robinson’s men were awarded a second penalty try from the driving lineout, before Matthew Morgan’s half-break put Marco Mama in space and the flanker made no mistake from fifteen metres.The procession of points continued before the interval as Miles Mantella flew over in the corner for his second of the evening, before Jack Lam muscled his way across the whitewash from close range. Morgan slotted the conversion to move his side to 35-12.A scrappy second half saw Dwayne Peel touch down for his first try in Bristol colours on the hour mark. The scrum half caught the Exiles’ defence napping to scamper over for a converted score.London Scottish added a third try when debutant Matt Heeks crossed in the corner to reduce arrears to 42-17.Bristol closed out the game comfortably to continue their unbeaten start to the campaign.Bristol Rugby:Auguy Slowik; Andy Short, Gareth Maule, Ben Mosses, David Lemi; Matthew Morgan, Dwayne Peel (c); Jack O’Connell, Ross Johnston, James Hall, Ben Glynn, Ian Evans, Marco Mama, Jack Lam, Mitch Eadie.Replacements: Max Crumpton (for Ross Johnston, 74 mins), Ellis Genge (for Jack O’Connell, 74 mins), Mark Sorenson (for Ben Glynn, 55 mins), Ben Skirving (for Mitch Eadie, 55 mins), Craig Hampson (for Dwayne Peel, 67 mins), Adrian Jarvis (for Ben Mosses, 67 mins), Jack Tovey (for Andy Short, 29 mins).London Scottish:Peter Lydon; Matt Williams, Mike Doneghan, PJ Gidlow (c), Miles Mantella; Lee Millar, Matt Heeks; Mark Lilley, David Cherry, Max Maidment, Tai Tuisamoa, Gregor Gillanders, Neil Best, Chris Walker, Chevvy Pennycook.Replacements: James Hallam (for David Cherry, 41 mins), Adam Kwasnicki (for David Cherry, 41 mins), Stewart Maguire (for Mark Lilley, 41 mins), Alex Brown (for Peter Lydon, 61 mins), Mark Bright, Jamie Stevenson (for Errie Claassens, 7 mins), Errie Claassens (for Mike Doneghan, 5 mins).Referee: John MeredithAttendance: 7,454Airbus Man of the Match: Ian Evanslast_img read more

September 16

Player set to arrive at Man United in 2 days –…

first_imgThe former Watford striker is currently with Shanghai Shenhua and will arrive at the Old Trafford club on loan.There’s no length given for the loan period, but presumably it’s until the end of the current season.Ole Gunnar Solkskjaer has been looking for a striker since before the summer window closed, given the exit of Romelu Lukaku to Inter Milan, and it’s become very clear that Manchester United have been scraping around at the end of January trying to get any option they can.Joshua King has spent much of Friday being linked with a move to Manchester United, but it looks like he’s missed out to Ighalo.Tuttomercatoweb are also reporting Ighalo to the Premier League club has ‘total agreement’ and it’s just a case of getting the paperwork done through the TMS system.This one looks like a genuine Deadline Day Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksTrending TodayForge of Empires – Free Online GameIf You Like to Play, this City-Building Game is a Must-Have. No Install.Forge of Empires – Free Online GameUndo聽多多 Hearmore.asia1969年前出生的香港居民現可免費試戴頂尖的歐洲助聽器聽多多 Hearmore.asiaUndoSmart Tech TrendOver 55? You Have to Try Those Revolutionary Glasses!Smart Tech TrendUndoCNN with DBS BankThe New Role Banks Are PlayingCNN with DBS BankUndoHero WarsGetting this Treasure is impossible! Prove us wrong!Hero WarsUndoGrepolis – Online Free GameGamers Around the World Have Been Waiting for this Game! Already 35 Million PlayersGrepolis – Online Free GameUndoLoans | Search AdsNeed a loan? Search hereLoans | Search AdsUndoKeto减肥1個簡單的妙招一夜「融化」腹部贅肉(今晚試試)Keto减肥UndoTheTopFiveVPNEnjoy Netflix Now Without Any RestrictionsTheTopFiveVPNUndo According to a late Deadline Day exclusive from Foot Mercato, Manchester United have agreed a deal to sign Odion Ighalo.last_img read more